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 A comprehensive attempt to map the development of the peace process in the Middle East, detailing the background of the Israeli- Palestinian conflict and the attempts to resolve it. Now it's up to you to add what you think about peace – together we can create the world peace encyclopedia and find a way to harmony and prosperity. 

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1982 Lebanon War/First Lebanon War

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
In June 1982 Israel invaded Lebanon ("Operation Peace for Galilee"). Targeting PLO camps in Lebanon, from which Israeli civilians had been attacked, Israel during the first stages of the war reached Beirut and besieged it. Later Israel withdrew to South Lebanon, which remained occupied until May 2000.
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The Lebanese Civil War

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
A war between various religious and political factions in Lebanon that started in 1975 and was only officially over after 15 years. During the war 130,000-200,000 citizens were killed and about a million fled the country, of which some are still displaced in refugee camps.
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Black September

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
Tensions between the Palestinian minority residing in Jordan and the goverment of Kiing Hussein escalated, causing the King to worry over the threat the Palestinians posed for the stability of his rule, which was realized after violent clashes between Palestinian guerrillas with Jordanian armed forces and an assassination attempt. Hussein retaliated with a wide scale army attack on Palestinian camps in Sept. 1970, which ended with the expulsion of the Palestinian organizations to Lebanon.
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The PLO's Ten Point Program

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
Affected by the events following the Yom Kippur War, the PLO formulated a plan towards establishing national institutions as infrastructure to exist in interim until Palestine can be liberated. Although the plan was seen in Israel as a danger to its existence, the plan caused the secession of radical factions from the PLO since they interpreted the plan as too conciliatory towards Israel.
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Geneva Conference (1973)

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
A conference convened by the US and the USSR after the Yom Kippur War to negotiate a peace settlement, attended by Israel, Egypt and Jordan, with the Syrian delegate absent. It served as the framework for the disengagement agreements signed between Israel, Egypt and Syria in '74, and was later seen as part of the Israeli-Egyptian peace process.
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Yom Kippur War/October war

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
A joint surprise attack of Egypt and Syria on Israel during the celebration of a holy fast - both for the Jews observing Yom Kippur and for Muslims observing Ramadan.
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War of Attrition

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
A series of confrontations between Egypt and Israel between 1967-70, in an Egyptian attempt to regain Sinai, which eventually developed into scale shelling along the Suez Canal (which alongside its eastern part Israel set up the Bar Lev line), extensive aerial warfare and commando raids. During the war Israel also attempted an attack the PLO camp Karameh in Jordan. The war ended in a ceasefire in August 1970, with between 500-1,400 Israeli casualties and between 3,000-`10,000 Egyptian casualties.
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Expulsion of Syrian residents of Golan Heights

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
Between 80,000 (according to Israeli historian Benny Morris) and 131,000 (according to Arab refugee reports) Arab Druze and Circassians fled or were driven from the heights and around 7,000 remained in the Israeli-occupied territory. Israel has claimed they fled during the '67 war,yet reliable sources claim that many were expelled shortly after its end. Israel doesn't allow former residents to return, citing security reasons.
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Resolution 242

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
In the aftermath of the '67 War, the UN Security Council adopted unanimously this resolution, that requires Israel's withdrawal of the territories it occupied (according to the Israeli interpretation, from some territories) . Also, all states involved in the war are required to recognize each other's sovereignty and to resolve their disputes peacefully. Israel claims this decision doesn't have a binding legality (despite it being a member of the UN and therefore under its jurisdiction) yet is the basis of all peace negotiations between Israel and the Arab states or the Palestinians.
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Khartoum Resolution

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
At the conclusion of the '67 Arab League summit (without Syria, that boycotted the event) after the war with Israel, the resolution outlined the Arab diplomatic policy towards Israel, know as the "Three No's": "no peace with Israel, no recognition of Israel, no negotiations with it".
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Foundation of first Israeli settlements

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
The first settlement in the West Bank after '67 was Kfar Etzion, which existed before '48 and was abandoned during the Independence War. It was rebuilt on the same location. At first the Israeli settlements were spread according to the Ellon Plan, which sought to annex lands sparsely populated by Arabs such as Gush Etzion and the Jordan Valley.
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The Annexation of East Jerusalem to Israel

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
After the Six Day War/'67 War Israel annexed East Jerusalem informally by extending its sovereignty over formerly Jordanian territory. In 1980 Israel passed "The Jerusalem Law" that unified Jerusalem, yet is unrecognized by the UN. The Arabs of Jerusalem and its surroundings were given resident status which enables them to use social benefits and vote for city hall, yet suffer from restrictions since they do not have full Israeli citizenship. As well as that, the Muslim Waqf retains its authority over Temple Mount .
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The Six Day War/'67 War

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
On the background of Palestinian terrorist attacks originating from the Jordanian occupied West bank and beyond Syrian borders, Israel initiated the war by bombing the Egyptian air force. By the end of the war Israel occupied the Golan heights, The Sinai peninsula, the Gaza strip and the West bank. The war marks a psychological change in the Arab countries attitude towards Israel - despite the humiliation of losing the war, they became aware that they must reconcile themselves to the existence of Israel. Negotiations after the war between the Arabs states and Israel never included a solution for the Palestinians.
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Foundation of the Fatah

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
Founded in 1959 by Palestinians studying in Egypt and Lebanon. Replaced George Habash's organization as the leading Palestinian political party. After the '67 War became involved in direct fighting with Israel and took over the PLO.
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Foundation of the PLO

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
In 1964, the Palestine Liberation Front was founded as an umbrella organisation for all Palestinian resistance organisation. Chaired By Yasser Arafat from inception to his death, and therefore affiliated with the Fatah. Formed as paramilitary and political organization that was recognized by the UN as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people , yet until 1994 has carried out terrorist attacks against Israel.
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Operation Kadesh/Suez Crisis

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
As part of a strategic alliance between Israel, France and Britain, Israel invaded the Sinai peninsula in order to help regain western control of the Suez Canal after its nationalization by Nasser. International pressure, mostly from the USA and the USSR forced the three countries to withdraw from Egypt. This operation changed the perception of Israel in Arab eyes, and it was seen from then onwards as a proxy of the former colonial powers in the Middle East. The operation also ended incursions of "the fedayeen" from Gaza which were seen as a threat to Israel.
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Operation Black Arrow

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
An Israeli reprisal operation targeting the Egyptian army stationed in Gaza on 28 February 1955 which humiliated the Egyptian leadership. As a result the Egyptian gave further support to Palestinian terrorist actions in Israel and fortified its borders.
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The Palestinian Arab Nationalist Movement

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
Originating in late 40's Beirut, developed from a student group led by George Habash that held pan-Arabic nationalistic ideology. Had several branches in various Arab countries. As the first organized Arab resistance to Israel, the Palestinian chapter was the basis for terrorist/nationalistic organizations such as the PLO and the PFLP.
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Absentee Property Law

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
The law was passed in the Israeli Knesset in 1950 and was since amended in '58 and '67. It regulates the expropriation of any real estate belonging to Arabs that weren't present on Israeli territory as of '48. This law also affects the property of Arabs who abandoned their property and yet ended up living in a different part of the country under Israeli sovereignty.
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The Jericho Conference

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
Held in the aftermath of the War of Independence/The '48 War by King Abdullah of Trans-Jordan, and resulted in annexation of the West Bank to Jordan, despite the protests of the Arab League.
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All-Palestine Government

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
Established by the Arab League at the break of the War of Independence/The '48 War, and declared its jurisdiction over the territory of mandatory Palestine. After the war its authority was only effective in the Gaza strip, since Jordan didn’t recognize it and applied its sovereignty over the West Bank. Disassembled By Nasser in '59. Was the first attempt in realizing Palestinian sovereignty, but was in fact ineffective and relied heavily on Egyptian support.
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The War of Independence/The '48 War

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
Breaking out immediately after the UN resolution, the war began with confrontations between the Jewish and Arab communities, while the British army was evacuating. Once the British mandate was officially over on 15 May 1948, armies from five Arab states (the largest was the Jordanian Arab Legion) joined the forces with the local Arab paramilitary organizations. By the end of the war the Israeli army held 78% of the mandatory territory ("The green line") and lost about 1% of its population- 6,373 dead. Estimates of Arab casualties are between 8,000-15,000 . Within the Israeli territory hundreds of Arab villages were destroyed, and 700,000 Arabs (a number is very much disputed) were expelled or persuaded to leave it.
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The UN Partition Resolution for Palestine

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
The vote by the General Assembly on 29th November 1947 on the partition resolution setting up a Jewish and an Arab state.The UN's resolution ended the British Mandate in Palestine, and announced the foundation of 2 seprate states: An Arab one with about 1,250,000 citizins, and a Jewsih one with about 600,000 citizens.The Arabs decision to reject the partition plan led to the break of the Independance War/the '48 War.
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King David Hotel bombing

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
A turning point in the rise of violent Jewish resistance to the British presence in Israel/Palestine was the bombing of the headquarters of the mandatory civil headquarters located at the King David Hotel, Jerusalem on July 22 1946. In the attack, carried out by the Irgun 91 men of different nationalities were killed, including 17 Jews. The attack led to a dispute between the different political factions of the Jewish resistance about the appropriate use of violence, and shocked the British public opinion.
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The Peel Commission

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
A British Royal Commission appointed in '37 to investigate the causes of the Arab Revolt of '36 and the Jewish violence that accompanied it.
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The Arab Revolt 1936-39

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
A nationalist uprising of Palestinian Arabs, directed against the British Mandate and Jewish presence in Palestine.
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Population Survey, 1936

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
The British population survey of Palestine conducted in 1936 counted 384,000 Jews and 984,000 Arabs.
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Population Survey, 1931

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
The British population survey of Palestine conducted in 1931 counted about a million citizens in all, of which about 760,000 were Muslim, 175,000 Jewish and 90,000 Christian.
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The Shaw Commission

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
A British Commission of Inquiry headed by Sir Walter Shaw sent to investigate the cause of the 1929 Palestine riots. The commission reported that the main cause was the fear of Arabs from a Jewish takeover of Palestine. Restrictions on Jewish immigration were recommended (not for the first time).
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San Remo conference

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
A conference held post WWI between the four principal Allied Powers, which redistributed the territory of the Ottoman Empire between them. Britain received a mandate for Palestine, and promised to implement the Balfour Declaration
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The Haganah

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
A Jewish paramilitary organization that existed from 1920 to 1948, which later became the core of the Israel Defense. Forces. The founding of the Haganah marks a change in the defense doctrine of the Jewish leadership, from defense on isolated settlements to a systematic array of forces.
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1929 Palestine Riots

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
Also known as the "Wailing Wall riots", the riots were a series of demonstrations and riots in late August 1929 (during the Jewish month of Av when traditionally Jews mourn the destruction of the temple) when a long-running dispute over access to the Western Wall in Jerusalem escalated into violence.
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The Jaffa Riots

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
A series of violent riots that took place in Palestine during 1921 which began as a fight between two Jewish groups but developed into an attack by Arabs on Jews during which many were killed. The rioting began in Jaffa and spread to other places.
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Faisel-Weizmann Agreement

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
Signed between the Emir Faisal, son of the King of Hejaz and leader of the Arab revolt against Turkey, and Chaim Weizmann, representing the Zionist movement. The agreement was supposed to resolve the relationship between the zionist and a united Arab kingdom, and it included the recognition of the Arabs of the Balfour Declaration. The agreement never took place because the Sykes-Picot agreement caused the end of Fiasel's rule, and an opportunity to stabilize the region was lost.
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The King-Crane Commission

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
An official investigation by the United States government during the summer of 1919 in order to find an alternative to the British and French Mandatory rule of the Middle East. The commision related to palestine as part of the greater Syria, and claimed that the esablishment of a Jewish state should be done with armed force due to the strong resistance of the native arabs. The commission's report wern't applied due to its belated publication in 1922.
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The Balfour Declaration

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
A letter from the British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour to Lord Rothschild, later incorporated into the Sèvres peace treaty with Turkey and the Mandate for Palestine. The declaration promises British support for the Zionist claim to building a Jewish national home in Israel/Palestine. According to the Palestinian narrative, it demonstrates the colonialist connection to Zionism.
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The Sykes-Picot Agreement

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
A secret agreement between the governments of Britain and France dividing the Middle East between them after WWI. It contradicts promises made to both the Arabs and the Jews, and therefore angered both sides.
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The Hussein-McMahon correspondence

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
During WWI the Sharif of Mecca, Husayn Bin Ali and the British High Commissioner Sir Henry McMahon, detailing the future of the lands under Ottoman control. MacMahon promises Arab independence, including the control over Palestine.
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The Basel Congress

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by WikiPeace editor   21.01.2013
In 1897 the first Zionist Congress was held in Basel, Switzerland, and the World Zionist Organization was founded . The congress ratified the Basel Declaration, that states: "Zionism seeks to establish a home for the Jewish people in Palestine secured under public law." This decision led eventually to a confrontation between the the Zionist movement and the Arabs living in Israel/Palestine, at the time under Ottoman rule.
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